1.1. Cornea injury
The cornea is the eye’s transparent, dome-shaped outermost layer. It is essentially responsible to see any object clearly. It may look clear and apparently it seen very fragile, a healthy cornea is fairly strong and serves as the eye’s shield, protecting it from debris, bacteria, and other foreign things. However, the cornea is sensitive to injury and lacks blood vessels to combat infection. In most cases, minor injuries, abrasions, or deformities heal without difficulty. When the cornea is injured, healthy peripheral epithelial cells migrate to the defect and can mend the cornea before vision loss or infection begins. In more severe cases, irreversible scarring may occur, requiring a corneal transplant. Because corneal injuries can result in irreversible vision loss, you should get medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and care to avoid further damage
1.2. How corneal get injured
Corneal injuries can occur whenever something unusual comes into contact with the cornea. Conditions such as dry eye syndrome might also increase the likelihood of corneal damage. Foreign bodies or corneal damage can cause abrasions (scratches), keratitis (inflammation), or corneal edema (swelling). Corneal injuries are prevalent, although they may usually be avoided by using protective eyewear. Corneal injuries, such as abrasions, are, however, a medical emergency. To avoid further harm, get medical assistance as soon as possible. The severity of a corneal injury is determined by the cause and the depth to which the cornea is penetrated within its five layers. Typical causes include:
• Chemical Irritants:
• Contact lenses
• Foreign object
• UV lights
1.3 Symptoms of corneal injury
Because the cornea is highly sensitive and contains many nerve cells known as pain receptors, even the most minor touch with the cornea can produce discomfort. Symptoms appear differently depending on causes.
• Pain or discomfort in the eyes
• The sensation that something is in your eye
• Vision impairment
• Discharge from eyes
• Eye irritability
• Light sensitivity
• corneal inflammation (keratitis
• Corneal cloudiness (corneal edema)
1.3.1. Foreign objects
Branches, cosmetics brushes, dirt, sand, metal, or glass that pierce the cornea are examples of foreign items or entities that can penetrate the cornea. Objects that penetrate beneath the cornea’s outer epithelial layer may increase the risk of permanent corneal scarring.
1.3.2. Contact lenses
Contact lenses that do not fit correctly or are worn out may scratch your cornea, causing temporary or permanent damage. As a result, it is essential to wear your contacts as advised.
1.3.3. Chemical Irritants:
Bleach and other acidic or alkaline substances can seriously harm the eyes. If you get a chemical in your eye(s), immediately rinse them with water or an eye irrigation solution.
1.3.4. UV Light:
Exposure to the sun, tanning beds, or UV reflections in snow or water can all induce corneal inflammation known as UV keratitis. Always wear your sunglasses regardless of the weather!
Bacterial or viral infections can cause corneal damage and visual loss, which can be temporary or permanent. The length of time it takes for a corneal infection to heal is determined by the illness and whether or not treatment is sought. For example, bacterial conjunctivitis may take a week to resolve with therapy, whereas the virus that causes ocular herpes can cause recurring episodes of eye inflammation such as keratitis (inflamed cornea).
1.4. How long corneal injury take to heal?
How to cure a scratched eye and how long it takes for a scratched cornea to heal are both determined by the source and severity of the injury. In cases where an object has become lodged in the eye or chemical contact has occurred, prompt medical help should be sought to avoid further injury or delay in treatment. If chemicals are splashed in the eye, immediately flush the eye with water for fifteen minutes. The person should be brought to the nearest emergency room as soon as possible. Furthermore, anyone experiencing significant eye pain should long it takes for a scratched cornea to heal.
To determine the severity of your problem, a corneal exam will be done. Additional tests, such as a fluorescein eye stain exam, may be conducted to reveal any abnormalities or scratches on the surface of your cornea.
1.5. Treatment for corneal damage
• Treatment for corneal damage may therefore include:
• Extraction of foreign substances from the eye
• Using an eye patch or a contact lens bandage
• Using doctor-prescribed eye drops or ointments
• Wearing contact lenses is prohibited until the eye has healed
• Taking pain relievers
1.5.1. Extraction of foreign substances from the eye
Gently pull the underlying foreign body from the surface with a moistened cotton-tipped applicator in a rolling motion. To avoid injuring the epithelium, use a gentle and restricted motion while touching the cornea with the wet cotton-tipped applicator.
1.5.2. Using an eye patch or a contact lens bandage
Patching is ineffective and not advised for the treatment of corneal abrasions. In individuals with corneal abrasions, consider using topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Topical mydriatics are ineffective and should not be used to treat corneal abrasions. use a gentle and restricted motion while touching the cornea with the wet cotton-tipped applicator.
1.5.3. Wearing contact lenses is prohibited until the eye has healed
Corneal abrasions in contact lens wearers can be dangerous to their vision. Contact lenses can damage the corneal epithelium and act as pathogenic vectors, allowing bacterial keratitis to develop.
1.5.4. Medication /painkiller used
You can take acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen. Your doctor may prescribe pain reliever eye drops if your pain is severe. Adults should take 650 to 1,000 milligrams (mg) of acetaminophen every 4 to 6 hours, with no more than 3,000 mg per day.